immense-immunology-insight
immense-immunology-insight:

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal
1. Cancer cells don’t age.Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.7. They have metabolic super powers.The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

Poor Grim Reaper :’(

immense-immunology-insight:

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal

1. Cancer cells don’t age.
Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.

2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.
They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.

3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.
The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.

4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.
Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.

5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.
Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.

6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.
When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.

7. They have metabolic super powers.
The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

Poor Grim Reaper :’(

Difference between partial and complete hydatidiform mole mnemonic

Hi everyone! Since you can completely confuse incomplete mole and complete mole, here’s a memory aid for you! The trick is to remember one & the other one, is the other one. We’ll remember complete mole.

A complete mole is completely paternal.
Complete mole has completely lost maternal chromosomes.
Complete mole can become completely malignant - can be Choriocarcinoma.
Complete mole is completely a tumor with no fetus on gross examination.
Complete mole often has a uterine size large for dates.
Complete mole has a markedly elevated hCG.
Complete mole is associated with theca letein Cysts.
Complete mole is associated with preeclampsia (hypertension) and hyperthyroidism.

Okay, so now that you get the concept, say that to yourself a few times!

Complete mole is completely paternal.
Complete mole is completely malignant
Complete mole is completely tumor.
Complete mole is completely large.
Complete mole is completely hCG.
Complete mole is completely cystic.
Complete mole is completely hyper.

Repeat. lol.

Let’s compare and contrast complete mole with partial mole!

An incomplete mole has maternal and paternal chromosomes.
parTial has T, Triploid has T. ParTial mole is Triploid.
Malignancy in partial mole is rare.
Incomplete mole is incomplete tumor. It has fetus parts on gross examination.
Partial mole has fetal parts.
Incomplete mole often has a uterine size small for dates.
Incomplete mole has a less elevated hCG.

That’s all!
Hope it helped you, completely xD
-IkaN

Normal labor: Mechanism on dummy pelvis and mnemonics

Hi everyone!
In this video I talk about normal labor and describe the events in detail.

Hope it helps :)

Restitution: Think of the baby resting after internal rotation, reminding you it is the passive movement untwisting the head.

"SOB SOF OF MV SMV SMB"
for diameters of the fetal head from complete flexion to complete extension.
Suboccipitobregmatic 9.5
Suboccipitofrontal 10
Occipitofrontal 11.5
Mentovertical 14
Submentovertical 11.5
Submentobregmatic 9.5
First three, vertex presentation.
Mentovertical, brow presentation.
Last two, brow presentation.

That’s all!
-IkaN

Related posts: Engagement, synclitism and asynclitism

Quad screen results and trisomy mnemonic
Arrange the biochemical markers of quad screen in alphabetical order:
AFP, Estriol, HCG, Inhibin A.Low low high high.Alternatively, you could remember: HIgh - HCG and Inhibin.Edward is a boy’s name. So HE is feeling low.HCG and Estriol are low in Trisomy 18.AFP and Inhibin are unchanged.Patau is high. Among the components of the quad screen, only AFP has a P in it so it is easyto remember that it is the only marker which is high.Estriol, Inhibin A and HCG are normal in Trisomy 13.

That’s all!

Puberty at 13, Elect at 18 and Drinks at 21 is another common mnemonic used to remember the trisomies. Thought of sharing if you didn’t know :)

Puberty = Patau’s syndrome = Trisomy 13
Election = Edward’s syndome = Trisomy 18
Drinking = Down’s syndrome = Trisomy 21

-IkaN

Quad screen results and trisomy mnemonic

Arrange the biochemical markers of quad screen in alphabetical order:

AFP, Estriol, HCG, Inhibin A.
Low low high high.
Alternatively, you could remember: HIgh - HCG and Inhibin.

Edward is a boy’s name. So HE is feeling low.
HCG and Estriol are low in Trisomy 18.
AFP and Inhibin are unchanged.

Patau is high. Among the components of the quad screen, only AFP has a P in it so it is easyto remember that it is the only marker which is high.
Estriol, Inhibin A and HCG are normal in Trisomy 13.

That’s all!
Puberty at 13, Elect at 18 and Drinks at 21 is another common mnemonic used to remember the trisomies. Thought of sharing if you didn’t know :)
Puberty = Patau’s syndrome = Trisomy 13
Election = Edward’s syndome = Trisomy 18
Drinking = Down’s syndrome = Trisomy 21
-IkaN

Evaluating axis from ECG (Mnemonic)

Hi everyone! We are going to learn how to determine the axis from an electrocardiogram =D

First of all, do you know which two leads should be looked at to determine whether axis is in the normal quadrant or if it is Left Axis Deviation (LAD) or Right Axis Deviation (RAD)?

Look at lead I and lead II. Sounds simple! ^__^

An upright (positive) QRS in leads I and II is normal (–30 degrees to +105 degrees).

In left-axis deviation, there is an upright QRS in lead I and a downward (negative) QRS in lead II (< –30 degrees).

In right-axis deviation, there is a downward QRS in lead I and an upright QRS in lead II (> +105 degrees).

How do I remember this? @_@

Thumbs up method: Lead I = Left thumb, Lead II = Right thumb.

Wait, why lead I is left thumb and lead II is the right thumb?

Because left is a smaller word and it gets the smaller number, that is, one!

Right has more alphabets and it gets the bigger number, that is, two.

Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb up (II) = Normal.

Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb down (II) = LAD.

Left thumb down (I) + Right thumb up (II) = RAD.

That’s all!

Have a splendid week everyone < 3

-IkaN

Why do we feel temperature with the back of our hand and why not the front?

The answer to this question goes back to Anatomy.

The front of our hand is innervated by the Median and Ulnar nerves which come from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus.
However, the back of the hand is innervated mostly by the Radial nerve which comes from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The posterior cord carries the maximum number of nerve roots, that is, C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1.

The radial nerve provides cutaneous sensory innervation to most of the back of the hand so I guess it’s better to check temperature with a nerve with maximum representative nerve roots. I assume if one or two roots are not working properly, say C8 & T1, the other roots from the same nerve will compensate for it.

Yes, there are other theories like the palmar skin is thicker than the skin on the dorsal aspect of the hand, but that’s not the real reason we check the temperature with the back of the hand because temperature is sensed by nerves and nerve endings aren’t dependent upon the thickness of the skin.

Note: Thermoreceptors are free nerve endings. In the mammalian peripheral nervous system, warmth receptors are thought to be unmyelinated C-fibres (low conduction velocity), while those responding to cold have both C-fibers and thinly myelinated A delta fibers (faster conduction velocity).

Source: My surgery professor told this to us. I could not find any other source on the internet confirming this information. I thought I’ll share it with you.. Lemme know if I am wrong though!

That’s all!
Happy friendship day :D
-IkaN

For the sake of completion, I thought I’d add about all the nerves involved:

The median nerve is formed from contributions from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus, originating from ventral roots of C5, C6 & C7 (lateral cord) and C8 & T1 (medial cord).

The ulnar nerve originates from the C8 & T1 nerve roots (and occasionally carries C7 fibres) which form part of the medial cord of the brachial plexus.

The radial nerve originates from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, carrying fibers from the ventral roots of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1.

Normal arterial blood gas values and serum electrolytes mnemonic

Know the normal pH of blood 7.35 - 7.45.. That’s all you need to remember I promise!

Take the numbers after the decimal, 35 - 45; and that’s your pCO2.

Divide 45 by 2, approx 22; and that’s your bicarbonate levels.

Multiply 45 by 2, that is, 90; and that’s your pO2.

So in summary -
pH: 7.35 - 7.45
PCO2: 33 - 45 mm Hg
PO2: 75 - 105 mm Hg
Serum bicarbonate: 22 - 28 mEq/L

That’s all!

Eid mubarak to everyone :)

Kawaii means cute in Japanese.Helps you remember Kawasaki&#8217;s disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, with strawberry tongue, coronary artery aneurysms and Asian predisposition.That&#8217;s all!PS: I love Japanese culture &amp; kawaii things :3I wanna visit Japan someday, wear a kimono, eat Sushi &amp; Onigiri, color my hair pink, cosplay anime and watch cars drift ^__^I love how this post allowed me to express my love for Japan &amp; calligraphy =D-IkaN

Kawaii means cute in Japanese.
Helps you remember Kawasaki’s disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, with strawberry tonguecoronary artery aneurysms and Asian predisposition.

That’s all!

PS: I love Japanese culture & kawaii things :3
I wanna visit Japan someday, wear a kimono, eat Sushi & Onigiri, color my hair pink, cosplay anime and watch cars drift ^__^
I love how this post allowed me to express my love for Japan & calligraphy =D

-IkaN