Risperidone won’t let you rest.
There are 4 Plasmodium species - P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax and P. ovale.
Did you know that P. vivax and P. ovale have a dormant stage (hypnozoites) that can persist in the liver? It can cause relapses by invading the bloodstream weeks, or even years later!
Primaquine is mainly used to treat P. vivax or P. ovale malaria, specifically to clear the dormant liver forms of these parasites (hypnozoites) once the parasite has been eliminated from the bloodstream. This requires a 14 day course of primaquine.
Sometimes examiners like to ask you which species cause relapses when treated with chloroquine only. Here’s my memory aid for remembering this tiny piece of information: liVer - viVax & oVale.
"pH" for Parietal cells secrete H+ ions.
"PC" for Pepsin is secreted by Chief cells.
(Alternate mnemonic: I think of master chef making food rich in proteins, peptides being degraded by pepsin and that’s how I remember the association that Chief cells secrete Pepsin).
G for G cells & G for Gastrin. (Hah! That was easy!)
S for S cells & S for Secretin! (Medicine is easy!)
You’ve probably heard of the iPhone.. Heard of iCDs? Coz they’re gonna help you remember the rest of the cells secretions- I cells secrete CCK. Delta cells secrete somatostatin. Go ICDS!
That’s all! <3
Wait.. Which cell secretes intrinsic factor? Do you know the IP address of that cell? IP.. Yes, yes. Parietal cells! Intrinsic factor - Parietal cells!
Histology hint: Parietal cells are pink puffy cells. Like a puffy big pink balloon, they are in the upper region of gastric pits. (Compared to chief cells that are in the lower region, have rough endoplasmic reticulum making them blue, and are smaller!)
"Super everter, deep dorsiflexer."
Superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) supplies the fibularis longus (peroneus longus) and fibularis brevis (peroneus brevis). These muscles evert the foot.
The deep fibular nerve (deep peroneal nerve) supplies the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis (peroneus) tertius, and extensor hallucis longus (propius). These muscles dorsiflex the foot.
The skin over the greater part of the dorsum of the foot is supplied by the superficial fibular nerve with the exception of the first web space, which is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve.
Leptin makes you wanna be thin.
It decreases food intake by inhibiting satiety centre.
Ghrelin makes you wanna gobble food.
It is an appetite inducer.
"Calci took a walk in the gastrointestinal tract"
Hello brainy people! Let’s memorize the embryological origins of the encephalon! The what? The brain? Yeah, that’s what we call it!
Disclaimer: I’ve made super lame associations =P
Three primary vesicles:
Forebrain is a pro.
Prosencephalon - future forebrain.
M for midbrain, mesencephalon.
Mesencephalon - future midbrain.
Rhomboid fossa is in the hindbrain.
Rhombencephalon - future hindbrain.
Five secondary vesicles:
You do telepathy with your cerebral hemispheres!
Telencephalon - Cerebral hemispheres.
Diet. Also, your food centres are in hyptothalamus.
Diencephalon - Thalamus, hypothalamus.
M for midbrain, mesencephalon.
Mesencephalon - Midbrain.
Meet me at the pond, bella.
Metencephelon - Pons, cerebellum.
Myelen think spinal cord. What connects spinal cord to the brain?
Myelencephalon - Medulla.
*zombie voice* “Brains! Human brains!”
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).. Because both have the word primary and are associated with the hepatobiliary system, it’s easy to mix em up.
Here’s how I keep them straight -
The middle word is the key:
sclerOsing has an O
O for onion
O looks like a bead
biliAry has an A
A for autoimmune
A for antibodies
Periductal onion skin fibrosis on histology and beaded appearance (both strictures and dilation) on cholangiography is seen in primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Cholangitis and Colitis sound similar and that’s how I make the Ulcerative colitis association with PSC!
Antimitochondrial antibodies are seen in primary biliary cirrhosis. It is autoimmune.
A also reminds me of the Attenuated bile duct epithelium due to destruction of interlobular bile ducts (those that course alongside the hepatic artery) by lymphocyte infiltration (Florid duct lesion).
Since autoimmune diseases are more commonly seen in females, PBC is also common in females.. So the other one, PSC, is seen in males!
Hope you all are doing awesome < 3
Did you guys know that inferior gluteal nerve is called the selfish nerve because it supplies only one muscle?