Normal labor: Mechanism on dummy pelvis and mnemonics

Hi everyone!
In this video I talk about normal labor and describe the events in detail.

Hope it helps :)

Restitution: Think of the baby resting after internal rotation, reminding you it is the passive movement untwisting the head.

"SOB SOF OF MV SMV SMB"
for diameters of the fetal head from complete flexion to complete extension.
Suboccipitobregmatic 9.5
Suboccipitofrontal 10
Occipitofrontal 11.5
Mentovertical 14
Submentovertical 11.5
Submentobregmatic 9.5
First three, vertex presentation.
Mentovertical, brow presentation.
Last two, brow presentation.

That’s all!
-IkaN

Related posts: Engagement, synclitism and asynclitism

Quad screen results and trisomy mnemonic
Arrange the biochemical markers of quad screen in alphabetical order:
AFP, Estriol, HCG, Inhibin A.Low low high high.Alternatively, you could remember: HIgh - HCG and Inhibin.Edward is a boy’s name. So HE is feeling low.HCG and Estriol are low in Trisomy 18.AFP and Inhibin are unchanged.Patau is high. Among the components of the quad screen, only AFP has a P in it so it is easyto remember that it is the only marker which is high.Estriol, Inhibin A and HCG are normal in Trisomy 13.

That’s all!

Puberty at 13, Elect at 18 and Drinks at 21 is another common mnemonic used to remember the trisomies. Thought of sharing if you didn’t know :)

Puberty = Patau’s syndrome = Trisomy 13
Election = Edward’s syndome = Trisomy 18
Drinking = Down’s syndrome = Trisomy 21

-IkaN

Quad screen results and trisomy mnemonic

Arrange the biochemical markers of quad screen in alphabetical order:

AFP, Estriol, HCG, Inhibin A.
Low low high high.
Alternatively, you could remember: HIgh - HCG and Inhibin.

Edward is a boy’s name. So HE is feeling low.
HCG and Estriol are low in Trisomy 18.
AFP and Inhibin are unchanged.

Patau is high. Among the components of the quad screen, only AFP has a P in it so it is easyto remember that it is the only marker which is high.
Estriol, Inhibin A and HCG are normal in Trisomy 13.

That’s all!
Puberty at 13, Elect at 18 and Drinks at 21 is another common mnemonic used to remember the trisomies. Thought of sharing if you didn’t know :)
Puberty = Patau’s syndrome = Trisomy 13
Election = Edward’s syndome = Trisomy 18
Drinking = Down’s syndrome = Trisomy 21
-IkaN

Evaluating axis from ECG (Mnemonic)

Hi everyone! We are going to learn how to determine the axis from an electrocardiogram =D

First of all, do you know which two leads should be looked at to determine whether axis is in the normal quadrant or if it is Left Axis Deviation (LAD) or Right Axis Deviation (RAD)?

Look at lead I and lead II. Sounds simple! ^__^

An upright (positive) QRS in leads I and II is normal (–30 degrees to +105 degrees).

In left-axis deviation, there is an upright QRS in lead I and a downward (negative) QRS in lead II (< –30 degrees).

In right-axis deviation, there is a downward QRS in lead I and an upright QRS in lead II (> +105 degrees).

How do I remember this? @_@

Thumbs up method: Lead I = Left thumb, Lead II = Right thumb.

Wait, why lead I is left thumb and lead II is the right thumb?

Because left is a smaller word and it gets the smaller number, that is, one!

Right has more alphabets and it gets the bigger number, that is, two.

Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb up (II) = Normal.

Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb down (II) = LAD.

Left thumb down (I) + Right thumb up (II) = RAD.

That’s all!

Have a splendid week everyone < 3

-IkaN

Why do we feel temperature with the back of our hand and why not the front?

The answer to this question goes back to Anatomy.

The front of our hand is innervated by the Median and Ulnar nerves which come from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus.
However, the back of the hand is innervated mostly by the Radial nerve which comes from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The posterior cord carries the maximum number of nerve roots, that is, C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1.

The radial nerve provides cutaneous sensory innervation to most of the back of the hand so I guess it’s better to check temperature with a nerve with maximum representative nerve roots. I assume if one or two roots are not working properly, say C8 & T1, the other roots from the same nerve will compensate for it.

Yes, there are other theories like the palmar skin is thicker than the skin on the dorsal aspect of the hand, but that’s not the real reason we check the temperature with the back of the hand because temperature is sensed by nerves and nerve endings aren’t dependent upon the thickness of the skin.

Note: Thermoreceptors are free nerve endings. In the mammalian peripheral nervous system, warmth receptors are thought to be unmyelinated C-fibres (low conduction velocity), while those responding to cold have both C-fibers and thinly myelinated A delta fibers (faster conduction velocity).

Source: My surgery professor told this to us. I could not find any other source on the internet confirming this information. I thought I’ll share it with you.. Lemme know if I am wrong though!

That’s all!
Happy friendship day :D
-IkaN

For the sake of completion, I thought I’d add about all the nerves involved:

The median nerve is formed from contributions from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus, originating from ventral roots of C5, C6 & C7 (lateral cord) and C8 & T1 (medial cord).

The ulnar nerve originates from the C8 & T1 nerve roots (and occasionally carries C7 fibres) which form part of the medial cord of the brachial plexus.

The radial nerve originates from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, carrying fibers from the ventral roots of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 & T1.

Normal arterial blood gas values and serum electrolytes mnemonic

Know the normal pH of blood 7.35 - 7.45.. That’s all you need to remember I promise!

Take the numbers after the decimal, 35 - 45; and that’s your pCO2.

Divide 45 by 2, approx 22; and that’s your bicarbonate levels.

Multiply 45 by 2, that is, 90; and that’s your pO2.

So in summary -
pH: 7.35 - 7.45
PCO2: 33 - 45 mm Hg
PO2: 75 - 105 mm Hg
Serum bicarbonate: 22 - 28 mEq/L

That’s all!

Eid mubarak to everyone :)

Kawaii means cute in Japanese.Helps you remember Kawasaki&#8217;s disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, with strawberry tongue, coronary artery aneurysms and Asian predisposition.That&#8217;s all!PS: I love Japanese culture &amp; kawaii things :3I wanna visit Japan someday, wear a kimono, eat Sushi &amp; Onigiri, color my hair pink, cosplay anime and watch cars drift ^__^I love how this post allowed me to express my love for Japan &amp; calligraphy =D-IkaN

Kawaii means cute in Japanese.
Helps you remember Kawasaki’s disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, with strawberry tonguecoronary artery aneurysms and Asian predisposition.

That’s all!

PS: I love Japanese culture & kawaii things :3
I wanna visit Japan someday, wear a kimono, eat Sushi & Onigiri, color my hair pink, cosplay anime and watch cars drift ^__^
I love how this post allowed me to express my love for Japan & calligraphy =D

-IkaN

Baclofen and Dantrolene mnemonic

Hey everyone. A very short post today.

Dantrolene.
You can call it “Dant-ryano-lene” and remember about the ryanodine receptor it acts on!

Dan-troll-ene has also a troll in the word.
Trolls on the internet often pass mean comments and make you hot & psychotic.
It helps you remember the uses:
- Treatment of malignant hyperthermia triggered by general anesthesia
- Management of neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by antipsychotics.

Baclofen.
Call it “GAbaclofen” and remember about the GABA receptor it acts on!
Use Bac-lofen when “back" needs to be relaxed (Treatment of muscle spasms)

That’s all for today guys!
-IkaN

Intrinsic tyrosine kinase and receptor-associated tyrosine kinase mnemonic

Hello, how is everything going? ^__^

We’ll be learning on how to remember some signaling pathways of endocrine hormones =D

Let’s get started!

MAP kinase pathway mnemonic:

I intrinsically try to map growth

Intrinsic tyrosine kinase - Insulin & growth factors (IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF) - MAP kinase pathway!

JAK-STAT signaling pathway mnemonic:

JAK reminds me of a jack ass. I imagine a jack pig instead =P

Prolactin, Immunomodulators (e.g., cytokines, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN), Growth hormone.

If you can’t remember the immunomodulators, just think STAT!

sTaT has two T's which should remind you of “Tins and Ters”

Tins - Erythropoietin, prolactin, thrombopoietin, leptin

Ters - Interferons, Interleukins

And another animal - rat.

This’ll help you remember that it is a receptor-associated tyrosine kinase!

So remember 3 animals - Jackass, pig & rat. You should be good :)

That’s all!

Hope you’re doing well & see you in the next post =D

-IkaN