medicowesome
medicowesome:

I was super super excited to share this mnemonic with you ^__^
What is lateral medullary syndrome?  Neurological symptoms due to injury to lateral part of the medulla (also called Wallenberg syndrome)When does it happen? When the posterior inferior cerebellar artery is occludedWhat is lateral pontine syndrome?  Neurological symptoms due to injury to lateral part of the ponsWhen does it happen? When the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is occludedWhat do both the lesions have in common?  Ipsilateral horner’s syndrome Why? Descending hypothalamic tracts affectedContralateral loss of pain and temperature Why? Lateral spinothalamic tract affectedIpsilateral cerebellar ataxia Why? Cerebellar peduncles affected (Inferior - medulla, middle - pons) Nausea, nystagmus, vertigo, vomiting Why? Vestibular nuclei involvementIpsilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation from the face (facial hemianesthesia) Why? Spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract involvedIpsilateral hearing loss Why? Cochlear nuclei and intraxial nerve fibers involvedSo how do I tell the difference between the two? @__@ Lateral medullary syndrome:Dysphagia, dysarthria, dysphonia Why? Nucleus ambiguus involved Lateral pontine syndrome:Ipsilateral paralysis of the upper and lower face (lower motor neuron lesion)Ipsilateral loss of lacrimation and reduced salivationIpsilateral loss of taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongueHyperacusis  Why? Facial nucleus & facial nerve involved
Cool fact:
There is a loss of pain and temperature sensation on the contralateral (opposite) side of the body and ipsilateral (same) side of the face
This finding is diagnostic That’s all! I created the mnemonic all by myself =D Hope that was fun and helpful :)-IkaN

Pika pika

medicowesome:

I was super super excited to share this mnemonic with you ^__^

What is lateral medullary syndrome?
Neurological symptoms due to injury to lateral part of the medulla
(also called Wallenberg syndrome)

When does it happen?
When the posterior inferior cerebellar artery is occluded

What is lateral pontine syndrome?
Neurological symptoms due to injury to lateral part of the pons

When does it happen?
When the anterior inferior cerebellar artery is occluded


What do both the lesions have in common?
 

Ipsilateral horner’s syndrome
Why? Descending hypothalamic tracts affected

Contralateral loss of pain and temperature
Why? Lateral spinothalamic tract affected

Ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia
Why? Cerebellar peduncles affected
(Inferior - medulla, middle - pons)

Nausea, nystagmus, vertigo, vomiting
Why? Vestibular nuclei involvement

Ipsilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation from the face (facial hemianesthesia)
Why? Spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract involved

Ipsilateral hearing loss
Why? Cochlear nuclei and intraxial nerve fibers involved


So how do I tell the difference between the two? @__@


Lateral medullary syndrome:
Dysphagia, dysarthria, dysphonia
Why? Nucleus ambiguus involved

Lateral pontine syndrome:
Ipsilateral paralysis of the upper and lower face (lower motor neuron lesion)
Ipsilateral loss of lacrimation and reduced salivation
Ipsilateral loss of taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue

Hyperacusis
 Why? Facial nucleus & facial nerve involved


Cool fact:

There is a loss of pain and temperature sensation on the contralateral (opposite) side of the body and ipsilateral (same) side of the face
This finding is diagnostic

That’s all!

I created the mnemonic all by myself =D
Hope that was fun and helpful :)

-IkaN

Pika pika

Cephalosporins mnemonic

I don’t usually recommend mnemonics for remembering drug names because over time you get so used to them that you don’t exactly need a mnemonic for it.

But if it’s your first year in pharmacology, it’s a lot to take in. I did make some memory aids for studying generations of cephalosporins but after a while, I promise you won’t need them.

I used to remember three drugs from each generation.

I associated first generation with the alphabet A.
"Alo, Azo, Adro."
CephALOthin, CefAZOlin, CefADROxil.

I associated second generation with the alphabet F.
"Fur, Fox, Fac."
CeFURoxime, CeFOXitin, CeFAClor.

I associated Third generation with the alphabet T.
"Taxi, Tizoxi, Tazidi, Triax."
CefoTAXIme, CefTIZOXIme, CefTAZIDIme.
Notice the “me” everywhere!

A comes first, next comes F and then comes T; alphabetically. So easy to recollect!

Fourth generation: “EpiQueen opi Rome
Cefepime, Cefquinome, Cefpirome.

It’s lame, memorize it for now & forget it later :D
Hope it helps!
-IkaN

Anonymous asked:

Anatomy
Anatomy

- Head, neck and face (ENT and otolaryngology also included here)
Innervation of the tongue, palate, pharynx & larynx with mnemonic
Extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Lymphatic drainage of the tongue
Memorizing how to draw the nasal septum
How to draw the tympanic membrane
Parotid tumors mnemonic
- Upper extremity
Hand of Benediction and clawing mnemonic
Supination and Pronation of  Forearm
Why do we feel temperature with the back of our hand and why not the front?
- Lower extremity
Peroneal nerve branches mnemonic
Gluteus maximus is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve
Sciatic nerve distribution and Sciatica
An artery is always palapated against a bone
- Abdomen
Left testicular vein drains into (Mnemonic)
Peritoneal ligaments of liver
-Histology
Cell mnemonics
Which cell secretes what? Gastrointestinal mnemonics
- Neuroanatomy
Coronal section of the brain highlighting lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus & internal capsule
Ventral and dorsal view of the brainstem highlighting cranial nerves (Diagrams only)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
♥ Location of synthesis of neurotransmitters mnemonic
Embryological origin of brain mnemonics
Parasympathetic ganglia mnemonic
Fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus
Vestibular nerve, pathway and mnemonic for the receptors
Cochlear nerve, pathway and mnemonic
Spinal cord organization mnemonic
Cerebellum mnemonics
♥ Lateral medullary syndrome and lateral pontine syndrome mnemonic
♥ How to remember the difference between Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area
- Ophthalmology
Layers of the cornea mnemonic
Refractive indices of the eye mnemonic
Prolate and Oblate ellipse mnemonic
Tropia vs Phoria
Myopia and Hypermetropia mnemonic
Progression of visual field defects in Glaucoma mnemonic
Difference between Iris repositor and IOL dialer
- Embryology
Steps of mitosis mnemonic
♥ Aortic arch derivatives mnemonic images
Nervous system origins mnemonic

immense-immunology-insight
immense-immunology-insight:

The respiratory tract, from the tip of the nose to the bronchioles, is exposed to pathogens present in the air. The innate immune system protects us against these pathogens by acting as a physical barrier.The respiratory tract is lined with sticky mucus secreted by goblet cells, which traps pathogens. Underneath the mucus, the epithelial cells are covered with cilia. The beating of these cilia transports the pathogens to the pharynx or nose, where they are swallowed or sneezed out.It is a brilliant anatomical barrier.I always imagine ciliated epithelial cells as little people nodding there head to music. Anything that gets stuck in their hair gets moved out of the system as a result of their head banging. They clean up the respiratory tract while bobbing to music, making them totally groovy!The wonderful work respiratory epithelium does in the presence of music makes us recommend that you work with music on too :D

In cystic fibrosis, a mutation in a gene for an ion pump causes the mucus to be abnormally viscous. The mucociliary escalator cannot work normally and infections are not cleared from the lungs. Chronic lung infections are a very common cause of death in cystic fibrosis.
Don’t lose your groove lil cells! B)

immense-immunology-insight:

The respiratory tract, from the tip of the nose to the bronchioles, is exposed to pathogens present in the air. The innate immune system protects us against these pathogens by acting as a physical barrier.

The respiratory tract is lined with sticky mucus secreted by goblet cells, which traps pathogens. Underneath the mucus, the epithelial cells are covered with cilia. The beating of these cilia transports the pathogens to the pharynx or nose, where they are swallowed or sneezed out.

It is a brilliant anatomical barrier.

I always imagine ciliated epithelial cells as little people nodding there head to music. Anything that gets stuck in their hair gets moved out of the system as a result of their head banging. They clean up the respiratory tract while bobbing to music, making them totally groovy!

The wonderful work respiratory epithelium does in the presence of music makes us recommend that you work with music on too :D

In cystic fibrosis, a mutation in a gene for an ion pump causes the mucus to be abnormally viscous. The mucociliary escalator cannot work normally and infections are not cleared from the lungs. Chronic lung infections are a very common cause of death in cystic fibrosis.

Don’t lose your groove lil cells! B)

immense-immunology-insight
immense-immunology-insight:

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal
1. Cancer cells don’t age.Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.7. They have metabolic super powers.The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

Poor Grim Reaper :’(

immense-immunology-insight:

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal

1. Cancer cells don’t age.
Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.

2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.
They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.

3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.
The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.

4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.
Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.

5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.
Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.

6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.
When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.

7. They have metabolic super powers.
The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

Poor Grim Reaper :’(

Difference between partial and complete hydatidiform mole mnemonic

Hi everyone! Since you can completely confuse incomplete mole and complete mole, here’s a memory aid for you! The trick is to remember one & the other one, is the other one. We’ll remember complete mole.

A complete mole is completely paternal.
Complete mole has completely lost maternal chromosomes.
Complete mole can become completely malignant - can be Choriocarcinoma.
Complete mole is completely a tumor with no fetus on gross examination.
Complete mole often has a uterine size large for dates.
Complete mole has a markedly elevated hCG.
Complete mole is associated with theca letein Cysts.
Complete mole is associated with preeclampsia (hypertension) and hyperthyroidism.

Okay, so now that you get the concept, say that to yourself a few times!

Complete mole is completely paternal.
Complete mole is completely malignant
Complete mole is completely tumor.
Complete mole is completely large.
Complete mole is completely hCG.
Complete mole is completely cystic.
Complete mole is completely hyper.

Repeat. lol.

Let’s compare and contrast complete mole with partial mole!

An incomplete mole has maternal and paternal chromosomes.
parTial has T, Triploid has T. ParTial mole is Triploid.
Malignancy in partial mole is rare.
Incomplete mole is incomplete tumor. It has fetus parts on gross examination.
Partial mole has fetal parts.
Incomplete mole often has a uterine size small for dates.
Incomplete mole has a less elevated hCG.

That’s all!
Hope it helped you, completely xD
-IkaN