Hi everyone! We are going to learn how to determine the axis from an electrocardiogram =D
First of all, do you know which two leads should be looked at to determine whether axis is in the normal quadrant or if it is Left Axis Deviation (LAD) or Right Axis Deviation (RAD)?
Look at lead I and lead II. Sounds simple! ^__^
An upright (positive) QRS in leads I and II is normal (–30 degrees to +105 degrees).
In left-axis deviation, there is an upright QRS in lead I and a downward (negative) QRS in lead II (< –30 degrees).
In right-axis deviation, there is a downward QRS in lead I and an upright QRS in lead II (> +105 degrees).
How do I remember this? @_@
Thumbs up method: Lead I = Left thumb, Lead II = Right thumb.
Wait, why lead I is left thumb and lead II is the right thumb?
Because left is a smaller word and it gets the smaller number, that is, one!
Right has more alphabets and it gets the bigger number, that is, two.
Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb up (II) = Normal.
Left thumb up (I) + Right thumb down (II) = LAD.
Left thumb down (I) + Right thumb up (II) = RAD.
Have a splendid week everyone < 3
Know the normal pH of blood 7.35 - 7.45.. That’s all you need to remember I promise!
Take the numbers after the decimal, 35 - 45; and that’s your pCO2.
Divide 45 by 2, approx 22; and that’s your bicarbonate levels.
Multiply 45 by 2, that is, 90; and that’s your pO2.
So in summary -
pH: 7.35 - 7.45
PCO2: 33 - 45 mm Hg
PO2: 75 - 105 mm Hg
Serum bicarbonate: 22 - 28 mEq/L
Eid mubarak to everyone :)
Hey everyone. A very short post today.
You can call it “Dant-ryano-lene” and remember about the ryanodine receptor it acts on!
Dan-troll-ene has also a troll in the word.
Trolls on the internet often pass mean comments and make you hot & psychotic.
It helps you remember the uses:
- Treatment of malignant hyperthermia triggered by general anesthesia
- Management of neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by antipsychotics.
Call it “GAbaclofen” and remember about the GABA receptor it acts on!
Use Bac-lofen when “back" needs to be relaxed (Treatment of muscle spasms)
That’s all for today guys!
Hello, how is everything going? ^__^
We’ll be learning on how to remember some signaling pathways of endocrine hormones =D
Let’s get started!
MAP kinase pathway mnemonic:
“I intrinsically try to map growth”
Intrinsic tyrosine kinase - Insulin & growth factors (IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF) - MAP kinase pathway!
JAK-STAT signaling pathway mnemonic:
JAK reminds me of a jack ass. I imagine a jack pig instead =P
Prolactin, Immunomodulators (e.g., cytokines, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN), Growth hormone.
If you can’t remember the immunomodulators, just think STAT!
sTaT has two T's which should remind you of “Tins and Ters”
Tins - Erythropoietin, prolactin, thrombopoietin, leptin
Ters - Interferons, Interleukins
And another animal - rat.
This’ll help you remember that it is a receptor-associated tyrosine kinase!
So remember 3 animals - Jackass, pig & rat. You should be good :)
Hope you’re doing well & see you in the next post =D